Heavy-metal habitats: calaminarian grassland in Gwydyr Forest Mines SAC

Named after the zinc ore ‘calamine’, calaminarian grassland is often associated with old mining works and describes the habitat that develops over metal-rich rocks and spoil. With a focus on Gwydyr Forest Mines SAC in Snowdonia National Park in Wales, Caroline Bateson describes the wildlife characteristic of this habitat, its history, and raises important considerations