Indications of Antiquity – some observations on the nature of plants associated with ancient woodlands

In most districts of Britain it is possible to compile lists of plants which show a close degree of association with long-established semi-natural woodland (Peterken 1981). Oxlips, Primula elatior, for example, have been shown to be closely associated with the ancient coppice woods fo East Anglia (Rackham 1980), Hay-scented Fern, Dryopteris aemula, with the relict native woods